An age-representative exploration of pro-social behavior: human generosity-offerings, expectations, and fairness


  • Zoltan Szabo Pécsi Tudományegyetem
  • Oliver Bela Kovacs Pécsi Tudományegyetem
  • Gabor Murai Pécsi Tudományegyetem
  • Zsofia Voros Pécsi Tudományegyetem
  • Daniel Kehl Pécsi Tudományegyetem



Pro-social behavior, Generosity, Dictator game, Aging, Offering, Expectation, Fairness



Fairness and other-regarding preferences arguably are defining factors of the experiments conducted with dictator games, which provide an opportunity to examine the components of pro-sociality. Our analysis focuses on the experimental results suggesting that offerings and expectations are based on egalitarian behavior. Besides that, we attempted to explore the age-specific characteristics of hypothetical dictator games.


We used survey data of an age-representative sample to measure how the results support previous research findings stating that generosity and its age-related aspects play a crucial role in the formation of human decisions and expectations.


Our results confirmed the dominance of hyper-fair behavior. However, significant differences were found across the dictator game variants in terms of the amounts of money marked. Subjects in cases of charity-offering, recipient-offering, and expectation give lower amounts on average compared to recipient-offerings and fairness, respectively. In contrast, the marked amounts are higher for recipient-offerings than for expectations with the absence of any significant age-effect.

Acknowledgements: The project was financed by the European Social Fund: Comprehensive Development for Implementing Smart Specialization Strategies at the University of Pecs (EFOP-3.6.1.- 16-2016-00004). Declarations of interest: none.

Szerző életrajzok

Zoltan Szabo, Pécsi Tudományegyetem

Egyetemi docens

Oliver Bela Kovacs, Pécsi Tudományegyetem

PhD hallgató

Gabor Murai, Pécsi Tudományegyetem

PhD hallgató

Zsofia Voros, Pécsi Tudományegyetem

Tudományos főmunkatárs

Daniel Kehl, Pécsi Tudományegyetem

Egyetemi adjunktus




Hogyan kell idézni

Szabo, Z., Kovacs, O. B., Murai, G. ., Voros, Z. . és Kehl, D. . (2021) „An age-representative exploration of pro-social behavior: human generosity-offerings, expectations, and fairness”, Marketing & Menedzsment, 55(Különszám 2), o. 5–19. doi: 10.15170/MM.2021.55.KSZ.02.01.